• Adrian Frutiger

    Adrian Frutiger was born in Unterseen, Canton of Bern, the son of a weaver. As a boy, he experimented with invented scripts and stylized handwriting in negative reaction to the formal, cursive penmanship then required by Swiss schools. His early interest in sculpture was discouraged by his father and by his secondary school teachers; they encouraged him to work in printing. Though in the world of print, he maintains the love of sculpture that has influenced his type forms.Formative yearsAt the age of sixteen, he was apprenticed for four years, as a compositor, to the printer Otto Schaerffli in Interlaken; between 1949 and 1951 he studied under Walter Käch and Alfred Willimann in the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of applied arts) in Zürich, where students studied monumental inscriptions from Roman forum rubbings. At the Kunstgewerbeschule, Frutiger primarily concentrated on calligraphy — a craft favouring the nib and the brush, instead of drafting…

  • Anthony Froshaug

    Anthony Froshaug (1920–84) was an English typographer and teacher, born in London to a Norwegian father and English mother. Froshaug attended Charterhouse School and studied book production and wood engraving at the Central School of Arts & Crafts from 1937 to 1939.On leaving the Central in 1939 he began to practice as a freelance graphic designer and typographer. As a typographer, he has been viewed as unusual in running his own small (un-private) press, including two periods of printing in Cornwall (1949–52, 1954–7). Froshaug is sometimes considered to be the most convincing exponent of modern typography in Britain. Froshaug was a natural teacher: he taught typography, first at the Central School (1948–9, 1952–3), then at the Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm (1957–61), the Royal College of Art in London (1961–4), Watford School of Art (1964–6); in 1970 he returned to teach (part-time) at the Central School, continuing there until illness forced…

  • Anton Stankowski

    Anton Stankowski was a German graphic designer, photographer and painter. He developed an original Theory of Design and pioneered Constructive Graphic Art. Typical Stankowski designs attempt to illustrate processes or behaviours rather than objects. Such experiments resulted in the use of fractal-like structures long before their popularisation by Benoît Mandelbrot in 1975.Early lifeAnton Stankowski was born in Gelsenkirchen, Westphalia. Before embarking on the profession of graphic designer, Stankowski worked as a decorator and church painter. In 1927 he attended the Folkwang Schule with fellow photographer, Max Burchartz. Professional career1929 Stankowski moved to Zurich, where he worked at the renowned advertising studio of Max Dalang. This is where he developed ‘constructive graphic art’ with his new photo- and typographic view. His friends in Zurich Richard Paul Lohse, Heiri Steiner, Hans Neuburg, as well as Hans Coray, Hans Fischli, Herbert Matter, Ernst A. Heiniger, Verena Loewensberg, Max Bill and others formed a…

  • Armin Hofmann

    Armin Hofmann is a Swiss graphic designer. He began his career in 1947 as a teacher at the Allgemeine Gewerbeschule Basel School of Art and Crafts at the age of twenty-six. Hofmann followed Emil Ruder as head of the graphic design department at the Schule für Gestaltung Basel (Basel School of Design) and was instrumental in developing the graphic design style known as the Swiss Style. His teaching methods were unorthodox and broad based, setting new standards that became widely known in design education institutions throughout the world. His independent insights as an educator, married with his rich and innovative powers of visual expression, created a body of work enormously varied - books, exhibitions, stage sets, logotypes, symbols, typography, posters, sign systems, and environmental graphics. His work is recognized for its reliance on the fundamental elements of graphic form - point, line, and shape - while subtly conveying simplicity, complexity,…

Johann Zainer was the first printer in Ulm, where he is busy with a first printing in 1473, he further developed the book Jewelry and gave the first German translation of a work by Giovanni Boccaccio, De claris mulieribus out.


Johann Zainer along with Günther Zainer, printer in Augsburg, from Reutlingen, perhaps the two brothers, but almost certainly related. Just as the Augsburg he received his training as a printer in Strasbourg, where in 1465 his marriage with Susanne Zuck value, the daughter of a mason, was entered into the citizen book.


His early pressure, Pestordnung the Ulm city physician Heinrich Steinhowel, dated from the year 1473rd After an initially successful activity Zainers business went to a few years back, it was probably due to liabilities referred in 1493 to the city, but later returned, printed, even if only slightly, to 1515 and 1523 was mentioned for the last time.


Significant Prints from Johann Zainers Ulmer Offizin are a German chronicle, written by Heinrich Steinhowel, which is considered one of the oldest printed with movable type, time books, and translated into German by the same work, De claris mulieribus of Giovanni Boccaccio: From several Frowen. Another translation Steinhöwels that the fables of Aesop, and Petrarch also came Griselda (1473) from Zainers press. In addition, he printed a number of theological writings, including in 1480 a Bible and in weighing printing method produced Fridolin Vita. Like many of his colleagues also Zainer oriented both to the interests of the clergy as well as those of citizens; not so successful in business.


In particular, the obligation of the hereafter Boccaccio Master named artist for the majority of the illustrations in the Petrarca, the Boccaccio and the Aesop has Johann Zainer introduced the honor of having the book jewelry further promoted decisively; emphasizing, in contrast to the usual, the contour woodcuts draw the cuts of Boccaccio Master by chiaroscuro effects, dimensionality and plasticity, a style that has been influential since the 1480s for the illustration of early prints and later, for example, Albrecht Dürer perfected.